Vol . 34 / No . 15 MMWR
215 ATV - Associated Injuries - Continued . 1983 - 1984 , fatal injuries resulting from transportation and recreational vehicle crashes ac counted for 353 ( 9 % ) of 3 , 881 deaths in Alaska , including : 285 ( 7 % ) automobile and truck collision fatalities , 86 ( 2 % ) aircraft crash fatalities , 20 ( 0 . 5 % ) ATV - associated fatalities , and 11 ( 0 . 3 % ) snowmachine - associated fatalities . In addition to the premature mortality associat ed with ATV use , related nonfatal injuries result in substantial costs for both individuals and society .
Interpretation of transportation and vehicle - related injury studies is often constrained by an absence of denominator data , particularly the number of persons at risk of injury . Informa tion concerning the number of vehicles in use and rider - usage patterns is often difficult , it not
impossible , to obtain . . Potential risk factors for injuries associated with ATVs include alcohol use , ineffective hel met use , rider inexperience and inattention , and excessive speed . Of major importance is the finding that 12 ( 60 % ) of the 20 fatalities may have been prevented by wearing a helmet . These factors , as well as vehicle - use patterns and vehicle characteristics , must be evaluated as part of a rational approach to plan intervention strategies . Injury investigations , such as this study . can serve as a basis for developing and implementing comprehensive injury surveillance sys tems to monitor the public health impact of injuries . References
1 . American Hospital Association . Hospital statistics . Chicago : American Hospital Association , . . : : 1984 : 45 .
2 . . CDC . Changes in premature mortality - United States , 1982 - 1983 . MMWR 1985 : 34 : 17 - 8 .
Epidemiologic Notes and Reports
Update : Milk - borne Salmonellosis – Illinois
The number of culture - confirmed cases of salmonellosis reported to the Minois Depart ment of Public Health during the outbreak of milk - borne salmonellosis reported last week ( 1 ) reached 5 , 770 on April 16 . Fifty - eight percent of the first 765 cases occurred among persons under 10 years of age . Salmonella typhimurium has been isolated from unopened containers of two lots of milk : Bluebrook 2 % milk , dated March 29 and produced March 20 . and Hill Farm 2 % milk , dated April 8 and produced March 30 . Both lots were from the same dairy plant in Mli
nois , which stopped producing milk April 9 . The milk was sold in Jewel , Eisner , and Magna su : permarkets in Illinois , Indiana , lowa , and Michigan . All milk produced by the plant has been re
moved from sale . Although the plant produces milk with several different concentrations of buttertat , thus far only 2 % milk has been strongly implicated . Investigations of the plant by state , federal , and industry officials are continuing to determine the precise cause of the con tamination of the milk .
By April 16 , the Illinois Department of Public Health had received reports of milk - associated , culture - confirmed cases of salmonellosis from the three other states where the milk was distributed - Indiana ( 289 cases ) , Michigan ( 43 ) , and lowa ( 28 ) . In addition , three state health departments ( Minnesota , Wisconsin , and Florida ) have reported a total of 19 cases among per sons returning to their states . · Reported by local Illinois health departments , Illinois Dept of Public Health ; Enteric Diseases Br , Div of Bacterial Diseases , Center for Infectious Diseases , CDC ; US Food and Drug Administration Editorial Note : This is the largest number of culture - confirmed cases ever associated with a single outbreak of salmonellosis in the United States . Although Salmonella is sometimes found in dairy cattle and in raw milk ( 2 ) . pasteurization kills Salmonella . The implicated milk